THE CONNECTOME

NETWORK OF NETWORKS
A CONNECTOMIC BASIS OF NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS
FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY DEFAULT MODE NETWORK-SALIENCE NETWORK

Connectome Scanning:
Looking at the Brain's Wiring

ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX

INTRODUCTION TO THE ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX

Senstel bridges the need to track common, multiple symptoms over time and to identify the changing relative importance of the features that affect each other both for the individual and to communicate in an objective manner with those they interact with personally and professionally.

Sensetel is able to do this through the measurement of the small electrophysiological pattern changes in the anterior cingulate cortex which is manifested in the voice. The anterior cingulate cortex – the “hub” within the brain that controls speech production also the processes pain, anxiety, depression and the executive function relating to the Default Mode Network and the Salience Network.

This high level processing interchange gives us a window on what is directly occurring in the brain and which is characterised in the articulation of the sound of the voice

Anterior Cingulate Cortex: Unique Role in Cognition and Emotion
Published Online:1 Apr 2011 https://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/jnp.23.2.jnp121

What is commonly described as discrete categories is actually a set of overlapping symptoms. Sensetel bases its analysis on the foundation of the underlying neuronal activation upwelling in the ACC and its interconnection with the prefrontal cortex, the anterior insula and the amygdala in the limbic system.

The functional connectivity of the ACC with these other areas form the basis of the default mode network and the salience network (controlling executive function). The reduction of connectivity with these other hubs is foundational to the experience of the psychopathologies of anxiety, depression, pain and loss of executive function and emotional self-regulation through alexithymia (a reduced self-sensibility to one’s own emotional state.)



Common Dysfunction of Large-Scale Neurocognitive Networks Across Psychiatric Disorders

These key conditions emerge from that interplay between behavioural, psychosocial and neurophysiological processes that do not respect diagnostic boundaries where the interactions are many sided and propelled by the individual’s daily experience.

• November 2018 Biological Psychiatry 85(5) 10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.11.011

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329148792_Common_Dysfunction_of_Large-Scale_Neurocognitive_Networks_Across_Psychiatric_Disorders

This study is the first to provide meta-analytic evidence of common alterations of functional connectivity within and between neurocognitive networks. The fIndings suggest a shared mechanism of network interactions that may associate with the generalized cognitive deficits observed in psychiatric disorders.
(17) (PDF) Common Dysfunction of Large-Scale Neurocognitive Networks Across Psychiatric Disorders. 


Model of brain activation predicts the neural collective influence map of the brain

https://www.pnas.org/content/114/15/3849

Flaviano Morone, Kevin Roth, Byungjoon Min, View ORCID ProfileH. Eugene Stanley, and Hernán A. Makse
1. aLevich Institute and Physics Department, City College of New York, New York, NY 10031;
2. bTheoretical Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland;
3. cCenter for Polymer Studies and Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215

EMOTIONAL CONNECTIVITY

EMOTIONAL BLINDNESS/ALEXITHYMIA/BURNOUT

Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in identifying and describing one’s own emotional feelings and external thinking style. Several studies have confirmed the relationships between alexithymia and depression, anxiety, autism, and a number of other psychosomatic disorders. It has been reported that approximately 9% of people suffer from alexithymia. Clarifying the neural mechanism of alexithymia can improve the understanding about this personality trait and its relationships with psychosomatic disorders.

To reduce these effects increasing functional connectivity as measured through the reduction of periodicity in the electrophysiological patterns experienced in the ACC can be mediated through the short interventions known to reduce immediate symptoms of anxiety.

Fundamentally, the key issue that is being objectively measured is the degree to which the hyper/hypoactivation of the ACC manifests as a part of the experienced distress corresponding to the multiple features can that be separately identified and monitored in a network analysis relating to the clusters of individual categories of mental disorder.

Mental health problems fluctuate, morph or shift over time pointing to the reality of the brain as a non-linear system where small changes can have large effects within this dynamical system. Sudden changes in the stability of symptoms and corresponding decrease/increases in wellbeing can be triggered by trivial but significant events. Finding out when these occur are the root to understanding how and when to change the circumstances which brought about that change. Understanding the timing and how these are set within the longer term repeated patterns gives a picture that can show the causes of the deterioration of their mental state.

Alexithymia in people with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease

Article in Aging Clinical and Experimental Research · December 2017

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312595098_Alexithymia_in_people_with_subjective_
cognitive_decline_mild_cognitive_impairment_and_mild_Alzheimer's_disease

patients who have objective cognitive decline have more alexithymia features than people with subjective cognitive decline. Moreover, alexithymia features seem to be similar in people mild AD and in people with MCI, although the cognitive symptoms are not clinically overt in the latter group. Thus, alexithymia might be another significant domain of behavioral–psychological symptoms in people with cognitive decline or complaints beyond aging.


INTEROCEPTIVE AWARENESS AND ALEXITHYMIA

Front Psychol. 2015; 6: 589.
Published online 2015 May 27. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00589

Neural activity during interoceptive awareness and its associations with alexithymia— An fMRI study in major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4444750/

This study forges a link between neural activity during IA and alexithymia in non- psychiatric controls and depressed individuals. To investigate IA, a well-established fMRI paradigm was used. Alexithymia was assessed using the TAS. In non-psychiatric controls

(NC), TAS scores were negatively associated with IA-related activity in medial-frontal regions such as the supragenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC; BA 24/32).

CHRONIC PAIN

Alexithymia Is Associated with Greater Risk of Chronic Pain and Negative Affect and with Lower Life Satisfaction in a General Population: The Hisayama Study

PLoS One. 2014; 9(3): e90984.
Published online 2014 Mar 12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090984

SOURCE https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3951296/

The prevalence of pain as a function of the TAS-20 categories is shown in Figure 1. As the scores of the TAS-20 categories increased, the prevalence of chronic pain increased and that of ‘no pain’ decreased

Figure 2
Odds ratios for chronic pain according to the TAS-20 subscales, adjusted for demographic factors in the general population.

Volume 107, April 2018, Pages 38-45
The role of emotion regulation in chronic pain: A systematic literature review https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0022399917309613

ASD/AUTISM

FEBRUARY 27, 2020
Learning difficulties due to poor connectivity, not specific brain regions

by University of Cambridge

Different learning difficulties do not correspond to specific regions of the brain, as previously thought, say researchers at the University of Cambridge. Instead poor connectivity between ‘hubs’ within the brain is much more strongly related to children’s difficulties.

https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/learning-difficulties-due-to-poor-connectivity-not-specific-brain- regions-study-shows

Accumulating evidence demonstrates that abnormalities in the structural or functional connections of the ACC and its sub-regions contribute to ASD

PLoS One. 2016; 11(3): e0151879.
Published online 2016 Mar 17. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151879

Mood disorders in high-functioning autism: the importance of alexithymia and emotional regulation https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-04020-1

Author(s) Kristen P. Morie, Scott Jackson, Zu Wei Zhai, Marc N. Potenza, Barbara Dritschel

Functional Connectivity of the Caudal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Is Decreased in Autism
Yuanyue Zhou,1,2 Lijuan Shi,1 Xilong Cui,1 Suhong Wang,3 and Xuerong Luo1,*

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4795711

MINOR COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
Volume 110, 30 August 2021, 110329

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0278584621000889?via%3Dihub

The functional and structural connectomes associated with geriatric depression and anxiety symptoms in mild cognitive impairment: Cross-syndrome overlap and generalization

Author links open overlay panel
JunhongYu  IrisRawtaer  LeiFeng  Ee-HeokKua  RathiMahendran

• Connectome-based predictive models were modified to include multimodal features.
• Depression and anxiety symptoms were best predicted by multimodal features.
• Both types of symptoms were significantly predicted by their overlapping features.
• Depression model predicted anxiety scores and vice versa.

EMOTION REGULATION

Impaired Cognitive Self-awareness Mediates the Association ...
https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk › eprint › Fonagy_Imp... PDF

PDF by A Kühnel · 2019 — Automatic or “intrinsic” emotion regulation is closely
related to direct ... development of depression (Joormann & Gotlib 2010), while its absence is.

Automatic or “intrinsic” emotion regulation is closely related to direct experience of emotions. It starts automatically, is effortless and without awareness (Gyurak et al. 2011). It is considered as a
protective factor against development of depression (Joormann & Gotlib 2010), while its absence is related to alexithymia and increased psychopathology (Green et al. 2007; Angst 2008)

A second aspect of emotion processing is voluntary or cognitive emotion regulation. In contrast to automatic emotion regulation, this process is consciously evoked and effortful (Gross 1998; Gyurak et al. 2011; Braunstein et al. 2017). One aspect of voluntary emotion regulation is self-awareness - a cognitive process closely associated with reflective functioning (RF) (Gyurak et al. 2011). RF is defined as ability to mentalize - the capacity to understand one ́s own and other's behaviors as expressions of mental states and feelings (Fonagy & Target 1997) and reflects a cognitive understanding of emotions. Studies showed that mentalizing is an important factor for psychological well-being as low RF is associated with psychiatric conditions, such as depression (Toth et al. 2008) or borderline personality disorder (Guttman & Laporte 2002; Deborde et al. 2012; New et al. 2012)

Moriguchi et al. (2007) reported a hypoactivation in these areas during mentalizing tasks in alexithymic subjects, indicating a possible disturbance in metabolic excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance

Senestel have adapted a network analysis approach to these system dependencies of psychopathology so that each category has a dimension we can measure and therefore examine and reveal these network changes.

In turn the system by providing an early warning system of increased hypoactivation/hyperactivation can pre emptively suggest short exercises known to reduce anxiety.( eye lateralisation, breathing exercise, binaural sound sessions )to boost the connectivity of the ACC and increasing functional connectivity.

This also has its consequent affects on the perception of chronic pain by breaking the cycle of the circularity of the condition where the anxiety feeds off the pain and vice versa. Further the same can be applied where the failure to recognise or differentiate one own feelings contributes to the excess of distress experienced in anxiety, depression within the conditions of ASD, and MCI as the components interact.

This enables individuals to track and engage with their daily pattern of changes and create new modes of emotional regulation by adopting manually pre-emptive actions such as heartbeat count and breathing cycles to reduce peaks of anxiety through the suite of techniques to reduce anxiety that are offered. At the same time it allows full knowledgeable support to be given in the light of this information by the families and professionals involved.

RESEARCH PAPER| VOLUME 39, 101042, SEPTEMBER 01, 2021
Interoceptive training to target anxiety in autistic adults (ADIE): A single-center, superiority randomized controlled trial

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/eclinm/article/PIIS2589-5370(21)00322-9/fulltext